Quantum Engines

Hydrofoton SA, a newly patented third generation solar technology ready to capitalize on the worldwide market for hydrogen and increased demand to reduce greenhouse gases.


The Hydrofoton Externally Active DSSC Solar Cell is poised to deliver a viable clean alternative for:

Disinfectant & Self-cleaning The device adopts PVD deposition techniques and has the potential to reduce internal working temperatures, reduce degradation, be capable of bacterial decontamination with self-cleaning surface properties, and be more robust with longer lifetimes.
Clean electricity generation Uses in electricity generation could expand to tinted building windows, while the ceramic backed version could be highly effective as electricity generating roof tiles.
Hydrogen production An as yet unrealized version of the device is likely to be able to produce molecular hydrogen and a new variant is expected to produce highly reactive atomic hydrogen which has a much higher energy density (more energy, less space) to molecular hydrogen.

Hydrogen is regarded as the fuel of tomorrow for the reason that it could displace the use of oil and petrol for transport and for other uses of power. However, normal hydrogen production methods (from natural gas) not only consume energy but produce CO2. Production from water by solar means and at ambient temperatures can provide a viable clean alternative which could see hydrogen being produced in the home and local to its use.


Technology Overview

The Hydrofoton Externally Active DSSC is a solar technology based on the sensitisation of TiO2 with a Ruthenium derived dye material. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) technology is not new and although forms of this have been around since the 1970’s. Research has been focused on improvement of the stability of dyes as dyes tended to degrade over time, and also to improve the efficiency of the device for electricity generation.
DSSC cells work in a similar way to photosynthesis in plants in that a dye is used to harvest light in the visible spectrum. Unlike the green Chlorophyll in plants, the common Ruthenium based dye is a deep red colour however other colours of dye, including green, have been used.

Basic DSSC Cell
The process is outlined as follows:

  • Sunlight penetrates the cell through the glass which has been coated with a Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) coating. This TCO coating provides the means to transport free electrons from the cell to the wires of the working circuit.
  • The sunlight then strikes a dye which is in intimate contact with a high surface area Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) layer where the light causes the dye to emit electrons.
  • These electrons are transmitted to the TiO2 therefore to the external circuit. In traditional cells the high energy UV light can act directly on the TiO2 not only giving rise to unwanted radical h+ atoms, which degrade the dye molecules, but also create excess heat which can cause unwanted expansion of the electrolyte leading to bursting or leaking. The proposed new technology claims to solve both of these problems which would represent a breakthrough in the field.

Electricity Generation
The new Hydrofoton Externally Active DSSC device has 2 additional coatings of TiO2 and TCO on the glass to create a new external cell on each face. These external cells only trap the highly energetic UV / Blue wavelengths of light, > 400nm wavelength, which gives rise to electrons in the outer circuits providing additional useful current.
As a result of the additional coatings of TiO2, the UV light does not penetrate the internals of the cell. This reduces the degradation of the dye and the heat generated by the UV light is now only present on the external layers of the cell. Removing heat from external surfaces is less difficult than if it was contained internally. The improved cell benefits in the following:

  • Decontamination: Since the two new active layers are external, this gives rise to the additional decontamination claims, where highly energetic free radicals on the surface can oxidize organic matter and effectively kill biological contaminating organisms.
  • Product life: The reduction of dye degradation and less mechanical expansion due to heat increases the life and reduces the complexity of the cell.

The additional TiO2 coatings on the cell were made possible by the Arc-PVD process. This process has the ability to create highly even coatings of metal and allows good adhesion to glass and ceramic. The Arc-PVD process has made the ceramic based cell picture below feasible. The ceramic based cell is a highly efficient cell, suitable for roof tiles.

Hydrogen Production
It is claimed that the cell, in a new configuration, can be used for the production of both molecular H2 Hydrogen and Atomic H+ Hydrogen. A version of the DSSC cell has previously been used for the purpose of molecular Hydrogen production.
Since the voltage required to electrolyse water is higher than that generated from a DSSC cell alone, the output from a TiO2 based cell in contact with the water (H2O) is used to enhance the circuit.
In a conventional electrolytic electrical circuit, electricity provides the energy. Water is present as H+ and OH- ions which are split into their elements with hydrogen produced at the cathode and Oxygen produced at the anode. Pure water is hard to cleave and so salt or another catalyst is generally added to facilitate the process. In the Hydrofoton DSSC version, sunlight provides the energy which generates the electrical current. Current is directly proportional to the light intensity and voltage is a function of the band-gap of the semiconductor.


Benefits

The advantages of DSSC Technology include:

  • Less sensitivity to angle of radiation incidences and shadowing
  • Performance over large range of light conditions + option for transparent modules to enable wider applications
  • Low sensitivity to ambient temperature changes
  • Truly bifacial, absorbing light from both faces which can be inverted
  • Low cost production

The new technology, with its low-cost constituents, holds the promise of low-cost generation with huge positive environmental impacts which could be adopted on a worldwide scale. Incept and Hydrofoton are now looking to establish and maximise this patent potential with the creation of application prototypes. The company is located in Spain with a production facility planned.


Additional developments

Cold Fusion Energy Hydrofoton has made advances into cold fusion, this nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei is a natural process that provides the necessary energy in the Universe and enables its existence, including life in our planet. It is an ordinary activity that characterizes the functioning of any star, including the Sun. This process occurs spontaneously in the stars as a result of the force that causes that the nuclei of this atoms fuse together in one to form a heavier one, but of a smaller mass than the original components which created it, allowing like this the release of a huge amount of energy according to the famous formula of Einstein E=mc2. This force is the gravity.

Cold fusion which does not require the creation of plasma as of such high temperatures to bring together the repellent protons, but an intermediate agent that counteract their Coulomb repulsive force: a particle of opposite charge.

Energetic teleportation This project is based on one of the rarest and counterintuitive phenomena of the quantum physics: the Quantum Entanglement, baptized by the most privileged minds of all the times, Albert Einstein, as “Ghostly Action in Distance”. In this characterization he had shown his complete disagreement with the colossal indeterministic phenomenon.

Both the Cold Fusion and Energetic teleportation developments, are the most important in all the fields and can be used in the immeasurable plans that humanity has to stock up on energy which, in addition of powerful, is clean, safe and environmentally friendly, regardless where it is used and in the desired magnitude.